Sunday, October 6, 2013

Fandamental of computer and history

Set - 1       POST BY SURENDRA SOLANKI

1. UNIVAC is
a. Universal Automatic Computer
b. Universal Array Computer
c. Unique Automatic
 Computer
d. Unvalued Automatic Computer

2. CD-ROM stands for
a. Compactable Read Only Memory
b. Compact Data Read Only Memory
c. Compactable Disk Read Only Memory
d. Compact Disk Read Only Memory

3. ALU is
a. Arithmetic Logic Unit
b. Array Logic Unit
c.
 Application Logic Unit
d. None of above

4. VGA is
a. Video Graphics Array
b. Visual Graphics Array
c. Volatile Graphics Array
d. Video Graphics Adapter

5. IBM 1401 is
a. First Generation Computer
b. Second Generation Computer
c. Third Generation
 Computer
d. Fourth Generation Computer

6. MSI stands for
a. Medium Scale Integrated Circuits
b. Medium System Integrated Circuits
c. Medium Scale Intelligent Circuit
d. Medium System Intelligent Circuit

7. The capacity of 3.5 inch floppy disk is
a. 1.40 MB
b. 1.44 GB
c. 1.40 GB
d. 1.44 MB

8. The first computer introduced in Nepal was
a. IBM 1400
b. IBM 1401
c. IBM 1402
d. IBM1402

9. WAN stands for
a. Wap Area Network
b. Wide Area Network
c. Wide Array Net
d. Wireless Area Network

10. MICR stands for
a. Magnetic Ink Character Reader
b. Magnetic Ink Code Reader
c. Magnetic Ink Cases Reader
d. None



Answers

1. UNIVAC is
Correct Answer: a. Universal Automatic Computer

Explanation: There are no computers with the name as in other options. UNIVAC was the first general purpose electronic digital computer designed for commercial use, produced by Universal Accounting Company of John Mauchly and J.P.Eckert in 1951.

2. CD-ROM stands for
Correct Answer: d. Compact Disk Read Only Memory

Explanation: There are no objects with the name as in other options. CD-ROM is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact disk, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. The standard 12 cm diameter CD-ROM store about 660 megabytes.

3. ALU is
Correct Answer: a. Arithmetic Logic Unit

Explanation: ALU is a unit in Central Processing Unit in a computer system that is responsible for arithmetic calculations and logical operations. Apart from ALU, the CPU contains MU (Memory Unit) and CU (Control Unit).

4. VGA is
Correct Answer: a. Video Graphics Array

Explanation: VGA is a type of Graphics Adapter. Graphic Adapter is an electronic board that controls the display of a monitor. This device helps the motherboard to work with the monitor and in VGA and SVGA the last letter ‘A’ stands for ‘Array’ whereas in MDA, CGA, MCGA the last letter ‘A’ stands for ‘Adapter’.

5. IBM 1401 is
Correct Answer: b. Second Generation Computer
Explanation: IBM 1401 is a Second Generation Computer and is the first computer to enter Nepal in 2028 BS for census. Government of Nepal had brought this computer on rent and later purchased for data processing in Bureau of Statistics. After this computer, another ICL 2950/10, a British computer, was purchased by the fund of UNDP and UNFPA for the census of 2038 BS is second computer in Nepal.

6. MSI stands for
Correct Answer: a. Medium Scale Integrated Circuits

Explanation: After the invention of IC chips the development of computers plunged into next phase. Small Scale Integration and Medium Scale Integration (SSI and MSI) were used in third generation of computers and Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI and VLSI) are being used in fourth generation of computers. People are now expecting ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) Circuits to be used for fifth generation computers.

7. The capacity of 3.5 inch floppy disk is
Correct Answer: d. 1.44 MB

Explanation: Microfloppy disks (3.5 inch) if it is high density (MF2HD) can store 1.44 MB and if it is low density (MF2DD), it can store 720 KB. Mini Floppy disks (5.25 inch) if it is high density (MD2HD) can store 1.2 MB and low density (MD2DD) stores 360 KB of data.

8. The first
 computer introduced in Nepal was
Correct Answer: b. IBM 1401

Explanation: IBM 1401, a second generation computer was brought in Nepal by the Government of Nepal paying One Lakh and twenty five thousands per month to use in the census in 2028 B.S. Before thiscomputer, Nepal was using a calculating device called Facit for statistical tasks.

9. WAN stands for
Correct Answer: b. Wide Area Network

Explanation: There are three different classes of computer network namely, Local Area Network (LAN) that covers a small geographical area such as a room, a building or a compound; Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) that has a citywide coverage; and Wide Area Network (WAN) that covers the whole globe or beyond the globe.

10. MICR stands for
Correct Answer: a. Magnetic Ink Character Reader

Explanation: MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader) is kind of scanner that can scan and identify the writing of magnetic ink. This device is used in banks to verify signatures in Checks.


Set - 2


1. EBCDIC stands for
a. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
b. Extended Bit Code Decimal Interchange Code
c. Extended Bit Case Decimal Interchange Code
d. Extended Binary Case Decimal Interchange Code

2. BCD is
a. Binary Coded Decimal
b. Bit Coded Decimal
c. Binary Coded Digit
d. Bit Coded Digit
 

3. ASCII stands for
a. American Stable Code for International Interchange
b. American Standard Case for Institutional Interchange
c. American Standard Code for Information Interchange
d. American Standard Code for Interchange Information 
 

4. Which of the following is first generation of computer
a. EDSAC
b. IBM-1401
c. CDC-1604
d. ICL-2900
 

5. Chief component of first generation computer was
a. Transistors
b. Vacuum Tubes and Valves
c. Integrated Circuits
d. None of above
 

6. FORTRAN is
a. File Translation
b. Format Translation
c. Formula Translation
d. Floppy Translation
 

7. EEPROM stand for
a. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
b. Easily Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
c. Electronic Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
d. None of the above
 

8. Second Generation computers were developed during
a. 1949 to 1955
b. 1956 to 1965
c. 1965 to 1970
d. 1970 to 1990

Correct Answer: 1956 to 1965
Explanation: Second generation computers used transistors as their main electronic component. Transistor was invented by Bell Lab Scientists John Burdeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley in 1947 and won the Nobel Prize in 1956 but it was not used in computers till 1956. The second generation continued until the implementation of IC chips invented by Jack Kilby in Texas Instruments in 1958.

 

9. The computer size was very large in 
a. First Generation
b. Second Generation
c. Third Generation
d. Fourth Generation
 

10. Microprocessors as switching devices are for which generation computers
a. First Generation
b. Second Generation
c. Third Generation
d. Fourth Generation
 


Answers:


1. EBCDIC stands for
Correct Answer: a. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

Explanation: EBCDIC is an 8-bit binary code for larger IBMs primarily mainframes in which each byte represent one alphanumeric character or two decimal digits. 256 characters can be coded using EBCDIC.

2. BCD is
Correct Answer: a. Binary Coded Decimal

Explanation: BCD is a binary coded notation in which each of the decimal digits is expressed as a 8-bit binary numeral. For example in binary coded decimal notation 12 is 0001 0010 as opposed to 1100 in pure binary.

3. ASCII stands for
Correct Answer: c. American Standard Code for Information Interchange

Explanation: ASCII is a code which converts characters – letters, digits, punctuations and control characters such as Alt, Tab etc – into numeral form. ASCII code is used to represent data internally in micro-computers. ASCII codes are 7 bits and can represent 0 to 127 and extended ASCII are 8 bits that represents 0 to 255.

4. Which of the following is first generation of computer
Correct Answer: a. EDSAC

Explanation: IBM-1401, CDC-1604 is second generation computer. ICL-2900 is a fourth generation computer. EDSAC is important in the development of computer since it was the first computer to use John von. Neumann’s Stored Program Concept. It used 3000 vacuum tubes and computers with vacuumtubes are of first generation computers.

5. Chief component of first generation computer was
Correct Answer: b. Vacuum Tubes and Valves

Explanation: Transistors were used for second generation computers and integrated circuits in third generation. First generation computers used vacuum tubes and valves as their main electronic component. Vacuum Tubes were invented by Lee DeForest in 1908.

6. FORTRAN is
Correct Answer: c. Formula Translation

Explanation: FORTRAN (Formula Translation) is one of the earlier High Level programming languages used to write scientific applications. It was developed by IBM in 1956.

7. EEPROM stand for
Correct Answer: a. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

Explanation: There are three types of ROM namely, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM. PROM can’t be reprogrammed, EPROM can be erased by exposing it in high intensity ultraviolet light and EEPROM can be erased and reprogrammed electrically. It is not needed to be removed from the computer to be modified.

8. Second Generation computers were developed during
Correct Answer: 1956 to 1965

Explanation: Second generation computers used transistors as their main electronic component. Transistor was invented by Bell Lab Scientists John Burdeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley in 1947 and won the Nobel Prize in 1956 but it was not used in computers till 1956. The second generation continued until the implementation of IC chips invented by Jack Kilby in Texas Instruments in 1958.

9. The computer size was very large in
Correct Answer: a. First Generation

Explanation: It is obvious that computers developed with more power, reliability, speed and smaller sizes due to the enhancement of technology. First generation computers used 1000s of vacuum tubes that required lot of space made them gigantic in size. Single transistor could replace 1000 vacuum tubes and a single IC chip replaced 1000s of transistors made computers smaller and more speedy.

10. Microprocessors as switching devices are for which generation computers
Correct Answer: Fourth Generation

Explanation: Microprocessors further revolutionized the development of computers. Personal microcomputers were possible due to the microprocessors. The first microprocessor called Intel 4004 was developed by American Intel Corporation in 1971. Microprocessors are used in the computers of fourth generation computers.


Set - 3


1. Which generation of computer is still under development
a. Fourth Generation
b. Fifth Generation
c. Sixth Generation
d. Seventh Generation

2. Artificial Intelligence is associated with which generation?
a. First Generation
b. Second Generation
c. Fifth Generation
d. Sixth Generation

3. Which operation is not performed by computer
a. Inputting
b. Processing
c. Controlling
d. Understanding

4. Fifth generation computer is also known as
a. Knowledge information processing system
b. Very large scale integration (VLSI)
c. Both of above
d. None of above

5. Central Processing Unit is combination of 
a. Control and storage
b. Control and output unit
c. Arithmetic logic and input unit
d. Arithmetic logic and control unit

6. The brain of any computer system is
a. Control Unit
b. Arithmetic Logic Unit
c. Central Processing Unit
d. Storage Unit

7. Pick the one that is used for logical operations or comparisons such as less than equal to or greater than.
a. Arithmetic and Logic Unit
b. Control Unit
c. Both of above
d. None of above

8. Analog computer works on the supply of 
a. Continuous electrical pulses
b. Electrical pulses but not continuous
c. Magnetic strength
d. None of the above

9. Digital devices are
a. Digital Clock
b. Automobile speed meter
c. Clock with a dial and two hands
d. All of them

10. The computer that process both analog and digital is called
a. Analog computer
b. Digital computer
c. Hybrid computer
d. Mainframe computer


Answers:


1. Which generation of computer is still under development
Correct Answer: b. Fifth Generation

Explanation: Today’s computer fall under the fourth generation computers that uses the LSI and VLSI Integrated Circuits. For fifth generation computers it is expected for Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits (ULSI). The study for using Gallium Arsenide instead of silicon chips is underway. Electrons can travel 5 times faster in Gallium Arsenide compared to the silicon. Similarly, genetically engineered protein molecules are being tried for processors. Fifth generation computers are expected to have artificialintelligence, ability to use natural language.

2. Artificial Intelligence is associated with which generation?
Correct Answer: c. Fifth Generation

Explanation: ‘A computer is a slave in a box’. This is a saying due to the lack of intelligence in computer in spite of their speed, accuracy, diligence and reliability. A computer can only perform instructed task in the way already programmed. Thus, scientists are trying to develop artificial intelligence in computers so that they can think and make decisions themselves. This is expected for fifth generation computers.

3. Which operation is not performed by computer
Correct Answer: d. Understanding

Explanation: Computers can’t understand since they don’t have intelligence. Let’s hope in fifth generation they will achieve artificial intelligence and be able to understand.

4. Fifth generation computer is also known as
Correct Answer: a. Knowledge information processing system

Explanation: Fifth Generation computers will have artificial intelligence and will be able to understand making knowledge information processing system possible,

5. Central Processing Unit is combination of
Correct Answer: d. Arithmetic logic and control unit

Explanation: Arithmetic logic and control unit along with memory unit forms a complete central processing unit and central processing unit along with input/output unit forms a computer system.

6. The brain of any computer system is
Correct Answer: c. Central Processing Unit

Explanation: Control unit or arithmetic logical unit alone can not represent the function of brain to compare with neither does storage unit only. Central Processing Unit is the combination of control, arithmetic logic and memory units thus can be compared with brain that controls the body, processes its functions and remembers.

7. Pick the one that is used for logical operations or comparisons such as less than equal to or greater than.
Correct Answer: a. Arithmetic and Logic Unit

Explanation: Logical sub-unit of ALU performs all the comparisons such as less than equal to or greater than. Arithmetic sub-unit of ALU performs calculations such as addition, subtraction and so on.

8. Analog computer works on the supply of
Correct Answer: a. Continuous electrical pulses

Explanation: Analog computers works on the continuous electrical pulses and digital computers work on the discrete electrical pulses. Analog computers need to process physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, speed etc.

9. Digital devices are
Correct Answer: a. Digital Clock.

Explanation: Automobile speed meter and clock with a dial and two hands are analog devices. Speed meter works on speed of wheel and the later works on tension of dialed spring.

10. The computer that process both analog and digital is called
Correct Answer c. Hybrid Computer

Explanation: Analog, Digital and Hybrid are the three classes of computers based on the work or principle on which computer work. Hybrid computers can perform both the tasks of analog computers as well as hybrid computers. These computers are used in aircraft, hospitals where measuring physical quantities and converting them into digital data to analyze is required.

Set - 3

1. Which of the following devices can be sued to directly image printed text?
a. OCR
b. OMR
c. MICR
d. All of above

2. The output quality of a printer is measured by
a. Dot per inch
b. Dot per sq. inch
c. Dots printed per unit time
d. All of above

3. In analog computer
a. Input is first converted to digital form
b. Input is never converted to digital form
c. Output is displayed in digital form
d. All of above

4. In latest generation computers, the instructions are executed
a. Parallel only
b. Sequentially only
c. Both sequentially and parallel
d. All of above

5. Who designed the first electronics computer – ENIAC?
a. Van-Neumann
b. Joseph M. Jacquard
c. J. Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly
d. All of above

6. Who invented the high level language c?
a. Dennis M. Ritchie
b. Niklaus Writh
c. Seymour Papert
d. Donald Kunth

7. Personnel who design, program, operate and maintain computer equipment refers to
a. Console-operator
b. Programmer
c. Peopleware
d. System Analyst

8. When did arch rivals IBM and Apple Computers Inc. decide to join hands?
a. 1978
b. 1984
c. 1990
d. 1991

9. Human beings are referred to as Homosapinens, which device is called Sillico Sapiens?
a. Monitor
b. Hardware
c. Robot
d. Computer

10. An error in software or hardware is called a bug. What is the alternative computer jargon for it?
a. Leech
b. Squid
c. Slug
d. Glitch

11. Modern Computer are very reliable but they are not
a. Fast
b. Powerful
c. Infallible
d. Cheap

12. What is the name of the display feature that highlights are of the screen which requires operator attention?
a. Pixel
b. Reverse video
c. Touch screen
d. Cursor

13. IMB launched its first personal computer called IBM-PC in 1981. It had chips from Intel, disk drives from Tandon, operating system from Microsoft, the printer from Epson and the application software from everywhere. Can you name the country which contributed the video display?
a. India
b. China
c. Germany
d. Taiwan

14. Personal computers use a number of chips mounted on a main circuit board. What is the common name for such boards?
a. Daughter board
b. Motherboard
c. Father board
d. Breadboard

15. In most IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drives, memory expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of this board?
a. Motherboard
b. Breadboard
c. Daughter board
d. Grandmother board

16. What is meant by a dedicated computer?
a. Which is used by one person only
b. Which is assigned one and only one task
c. Which uses one kind of software
d. Which is meant for application software

17. The system unit of a personal computer typically contains all of the following except:
a. Microprocessor
b. Disk controller
c. Serial interface
d. Modem

18. A computer program that converts an entire program into machine language is called a/an
a. Interpreter
b. Simulator
c. Compiler
d. Commander

19. A computer program that translates one program instructions at a time into machine language is called a/an
a. Interpreter
b. CPU
c. Compiler
d. Simulator

20. A small or intelligent device is so called because it contains within it a
a. Computer
b. Microcomputer
c. Programmable
d. Sensor



Answers:


1. Which of the following devices can be sued to directly image printed text?
a. OCR

2. The output quality of a printer is measured by
b. Dot per sq. inch

3. In analog computer
b. Input is never converted to digital form

4. In latest generation computers, the instructions are executed
c. Both sequentially and parallel

5. Who designed the first electronics computer – ENIAC?
c.  J. Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly

6. Who invented the high level language c?
a. Dennis M. Ritchie

7. Personnel who design, program, operate and maintain computer equipment refers to
c. Peopleware

8. When did arch rivals IBM and Apple Computers Inc. decide to join hands?
d. 1991

9. Human beings are referred to as Homosapinens, which device is called Sillico Sapiens?
d. Computer

10. An error in software or hardware is called a bug. What is the alternative computer jargon for it?
d. Glitch

11. Modern Computer are very reliable but they are not
c. Infallible

12. What is the name of the display feature that highlights are of the screen which requires operator attention?
b. Reverse video

13. IMB launched its first personal computer called IBM-PC in 1981. It had chips from Intel, disk drives from Tandon, operating system from Microsoft, the printer from Epson and the application software from everywhere. Can you name the country which contributed the video display?
d. Taiwan

14. Personal computers use a number of chips mounted on a main circuit board. What is the common name for such boards?
b. Motherboard

15. In most IBM PCs, the CPU, the device drives, memory expansion slots and active components are mounted on a single board. What is the name of this board?
a. Motherboard

16. What is meant by a dedicated computer?
b. Which is assigned one and only one task

17. The system unit of a personal computer typically contains all of the following except:
d. Modem

18. A computer program that converts an entire program into machine language is called a/an
c. Compiler

19. A computer program that translates one program instructions at a time into machine language is called a/an
a. Interpreter

20. A small or intelligent device is so called because it contains within it a
d. Sensor



14 comments:

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